Essay on G20 Summit- The G20 Summit is an annual gathering of leaders from the world’s largest economies and the European Union. It serves as a critical forum for international economic cooperation and development. Established in 1999, the G20 Summit plays a significant role in shaping the global economic landscape and addressing pressing global challenges. This essay will explore the origins and evolution of the G20, its organizational structure, the importance of the summit, India’s G20 Summit presidency in 2023, and the key discussions and outcomes of the G20 New Delhi Summit.
Origins and Evolution of the G20
The G20 was created in response to the financial crises that emerged in several emerging economies in the 1990s. It aimed to provide a platform for Finance Ministers and Central Bank Governors to discuss global economic and financial issues. In December 1999, the first informal dialogue took place in Berlin, Germany, with representatives from advanced and emerging economies. Since then, Finance Ministers and Central Bank Governors have met annually.
Organizational Structure of the G20
Unlike other international organizations, the G20 operates without a permanent secretariat or staff. The chairmanship of the G20 rotates annually among its members. The chair, along with the past and future chairs, forms the Troika, which manages the G20’s affairs. The preparatory process for the G20 Summit is conducted through the Sherpa and Finance tracks. The Sherpa track focuses on non-economic and financial issues, while the Finance track addresses economic and financial matters. Expert working groups support both tracks in their technical and substantive work.
Importance of the G20 Summit
The G20 Summit holds immense importance as it brings together countries that represent approximately 85% of global GDP, 80% of global trade, and two-thirds of the world’s population. It serves as a platform for leaders to exchange ideas, deliberate on policy solutions, and coordinate efforts to address global challenges. The G20 Summit has played a crucial role in responding to major crises such as the 2008 global financial crisis and coordinating the global response to the COVID-19 pandemic.
India’s G20 Summit Presidency 2023
India assumes the G20 Summit presidency in 2023, reflecting its growing economic prowess and global influence. As the host of the G20 Summit, India aims to advocate for its economic interests and contribute to resolving critical global challenges. India’s G20 leadership provides an opportunity to showcase its expertise in areas such as women empowerment, democracy, and digital technologies. As a country with core democratic values, India can demonstrate that conflicts can be resolved when democracy becomes a culture.
India’s foreign policy focuses on the “global common good.” Through its G20 leadership, India aims to find sustainable solutions to key global challenges, including climate change, emerging technologies, food and energy security. India’s G20 presidency also presents an opportunity to address long-standing anomalies that disadvantage developing countries, especially in the areas of agriculture and food subsidies.
G20 New Delhi Summit: Discussions and Outcomes
The G20 New Delhi Summit, held on September 9 and 10, 2023, focused on the theme “One Earth, One Family, One Future.” The summit addressed various important issues, including food security, climate and energy, development, health, and digitalization. The discussions aimed to find collaborative solutions to these challenges and promote global economic stability and sustainable growth.
In Session 1, titled “One Earth,” participants discussed the world economy, food security, climate and energy, and the environment. The importance of observing the United Nations Charter and achieving a just and lasting peace in Ukraine was emphasized, given Russia’s aggression. Prime Minister Kishida highlighted the need for cooperation among countries to address global crises and reaffirmed the significance of the G7 Hiroshima Summit’s outcomes being integrated into the G20.
In Session 2, titled “One Family,” inclusive growth, the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), and health were discussed. G20 members stressed the importance of reducing poverty and inequality, accelerating efforts towards achieving the SDGs, and preparing for pandemics.
In Session 3, titled “One Future,” leaders discussed multilateral reforms, digitalization, and other issues. Prime Minister Kishida reiterated Japan’s support for the African Union’s membership in the G20, acknowledging the increasing roles of African countries in the international community. He highlighted the necessity of multilateral system reforms to overcome global challenges and shape a better future.
The G20 New Delhi Leaders’ Declaration, issued as a summary of the discussions, highlighted the commitments and actions agreed upon by the participating countries. Prime Minister Kishida engaged in brief talks with leaders from over 29 countries, fostering dialogue and strengthening international cooperation.
The G20 Summit plays a vital role in shaping the global economy and addressing pressing global challenges. As India assumes the G20 Summit presidency in 2023, it has the opportunity to advocate for its economic interests and contribute to finding sustainable solutions to key global issues. The discussions and outcomes of the G20 New Delhi Summit reflect the commitment of participating countries to collaborate and take collective action for global economic stability, inclusive growth, and the well-being of all nations. By working together, the G20 members can shape a better future for the world economy and foster international cooperation on a scale commensurate with their collective influence.